Five Elements (Pancha Mahabhutas)

The five elements represent the most important foundational concept in Ayurveda. More than physical elements, the five elements represent ideas that are fundamental to nature and matter.
The five elements are collections of qualities that together form the building blocks of nature. If a person truly understands the five elements, the doorway of knowledge opens to understanding creation itself.
In the body, each element is associated with different tissues and functions. In the mind, the elements are associated with personality characteristics. In the medicines, the elements determine their actions. Knowledge of the five elements is part and parcel of Ayurveda. Those who does not properly understand the five elements, cannot properly understand Ayurveda.

Earth (Prithvi) - the principle of inertia

represents the solid state of matter and along with water, is actually responsible for the physical constitution of the body. Bones, teeth, and tissues are all considered as earth elements. Earth connects to the nose and the sense of smell. Water and Earth form the Kapha Dosha.

Water (Ap) - the principle of cohesion

Water represents the liquid state of matter and it indicates change or instability. Water is responsible for the fluid metabolism in the body, therefore blood, lymph and other fluids are considered as water elements. Water connects to the tongue and the sense of taste. Water is the dominant element in the Kapha Dosha.

Fire (Tejas) - the principle of radiance

The fire element represents form without substance and it has the power to transfer the state of any substance. In the body it is responsible for digestion and perception and connected to the eyes and therefore sight. Fire is the dominant element in the Pitta Dosha.

Wind (Vayu) - the principle of vibration

Wind or air represents the gaseous state of matter. It indicates mobility and dynamic. In the body the wind element is responsible for the respiratory system and necessary for all energy transfers as air is the key element needed for fire to burn. Wind connects to the skin which perceives touch. Air is the dominant element in the Vata Dosha.

Ether (Akasa) - the principle of pervasiveness

The element of ether represents the space in which everything takes place. It relates to all hollow or empty places in the body, such as all our channels, pores and the ears that perceive sound. Together with the air, this element forms the Vata Dosha.

Those elements can be assigned to different regions in the body and connected to one of the five senses. Each two of them manifest in a Dosha.